“Lester Asheim in Cyberspace: a Tribute to Sound Reasoning.” American Schrader,Alvin M. “Internet Filters: Library Access Issues in a Cyberspace World. EBSCOhost serves thousands of libraries with premium essays, articles and other content including LESTER ASHEIM IN CYBERSPACE: A TRIBUTE TO. Not censorship but selection is a article written by lester asheim. It was initially published in the wilson library bulletin, 1 and has been influential in library.

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It was initially published in the Wilson Library Bulletin[1] and has been influential in library professional standards relating to censorship and cybegspace development. The full text of the article currently resides on the website of the American Library Association. This seminal article on the difference between censorship and selection in libraries influenced later thought and formed the cornerstone of many intellectual freedom documents. In the first section of the article Asheim goes over the difference of censorship of a book by the law or by a town, versus the choice of a librarian not to select something for her library.

He states that the librarian is cjberspace censoring because she is making a choice that only affects her specific institution, whereas the choice the censors are making affect an entire town or nation.

The librarian is not saying that the book cannot be circulated, only that she is not going to circulate it.

Lester asheim in cyberspace pdf

Patrons are still able to cybesrpace it elsewhere. Asheim then brings up the question of limited control. He wonders if limited control, which the librarian has when choosing not to select a book, is any different from the limited control of the local pressure group.

He then concludes that it is different because the reasons and motives behind the choice are different. He also believes that the patron who is being denied the book is affected differently depending on the intent of the person who is choosing to limit the book.

Lester Asheim – WikiVisually

The man who has had his leg amputated by the psychotic knows the difference and is affected differently than if a doctor had done it out of a need to help his patient. Because it is a physical impossibility to make all books equally accessible, selection by librarians is necessary.

Asheim writes that some of the standards that librarians use for selecting books are the same standards that censors use to ban books. For example, it is valid to use the intent of the author as a selection standard, however it can also be used to ban a book in which it is decided that the author’s intent is pornographic or treasonable.

The standards are subjective.

Lester Asheim in Cyberspace: A Tribute to Sound Reasoning

Therefore, the difference between selection and censorship is found in the way the standards are applied. Asheim argues that the main difference between a selector and a censor is in their approach: The selector, seeking to preserve, looks to find reasons to keep a book.

The censor, seeking to ban, looks for reasons to reject a book. Asheim says that the negative approach makes it inevitable that a book will be judged not in its wholeness but by isolated parts.

He writes that the selector’s positive approach is demonstrated by the diversity of a library’s collection that makes as much as possible accessible to patrons.

Further, he believes that the frequency of challenges to library holdings is in itself a testament to the difference between selection and censorship. He writes that the censor uses external criteria to judge a book; for instance, the author’s life may be examined and used as a way to reject a work. The selector, on the other hand, uses internal values and judges a book by its own merit. He calls selection democratic and censorship authoritarian.

Finally, Asheim reminds that the confidence the public has in librarians is an earned confidence that can only be kept by staying true to the profession’s ideals. And one of these ideals is maintaining the essential difference between selection and censorship. Asheim’s article has influenced many in the library profession and authors continue to cite it when responding to the changing censorship landscape.

InAsheim wrote a reappraisal of his own article to address the changing tactics of censors and to challenge the persistent assumption that librarians select materials based primarily on their personal tastes. In response, Asheim further emphasizes that segments of the library’s patron base should not be allowed to impede each other’s rights, and that the job of the librarian is to make selection choices with the library’s entire community in mind.

He also upholds his prior assertion that the best response to the problem of access is to add ideas rather than to remove them. September 11 attacks — The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with and 72 killed respectively.

Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Navy in May The building was opened on November 3, The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets.


Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden. Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but later admitted involvement, in NovemberU. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27, a second bin Laden video was released.

In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims.

He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Discrimination — This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated.

Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices, and laws exist in countries and institutions in every part of the world. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination, the term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language.

It is from the Latin discriminat- distinguished between, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen distinction, from the verb discernere, Discrimination derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction.

Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration, an individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason, in addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression.

It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as different so much that they are treated inhumanly, social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups.

Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable, the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement, Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world, important UN documents addressing discrimination include, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is a United Nations convention, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination.

The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 Decemberthe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is an international treaty adopted in by the United Nations General Assembly.

Described as a bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities, the text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 Decemberand opened for signature on 30 March Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 Mayageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someones age.

It is a set of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a persons age.

Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents, Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, interestingly, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years.

Academic library — It is unknown how many academic libraries there are internationally. The support of teaching and learning material for class readings. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves, in the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles.

Academic libraries must determine a focus for development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission, when there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries, these are often referred to as niche collections.


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These collections are often the basis of a special department and may include original papers, artwork. There is a deal of variation among academic libraries based on their size, resources, collections.

The Harvard University Library is considered to be the largest academic library in the world and has the third largest collection in the United States, another notable example is the University of the South Pacific which has academic libraries distributed throughout its twelve member countries. The first colleges in the United States were intended to train members of the clergy, the libraries associated with these institutions largely consisted of donated books on the subjects of theology and the classics.

InYale had approximately 4, volumes, second only to Harvard, access to these libraries was restricted to faculty members and a few students, the only staff was a part-time faculty member or the president of the college.

The priority of the library was to protect the books, not to allow patrons to use them, inYale was open 30 hours a week, the University of Virginia was open nine hours a week, Columbia University four, and Bowdoin College only three. Students instead created literary societies and assessed entrance fees in order to build a collection of usable volumes often in excess of what the university library held.

Around the turn of the century, this began to change. The American Library Association was formed inwith members including Melvil Dewey, Libraries re-prioritized in favor of improving access to materials, and found funding increasing as a result of increased demand for said materials. Academic libraries today vary in regard to the extent to which they accommodate those who are not affiliated with their parent universities, some offer reading and borrowing privileges to members of the public on payment of an annual fee, such fees can vary greatly.

The privileges so obtained usually do not extend to such services as computer usage, other than to search the catalog, alumni and students of cooperating local universities may be given discounts or other consideration when arranging for borrowing privileges. On the other hand, access to the libraries of universities is absolutely restricted to students, faculty. Book censorship — Book censorship is when some authority, government or otherwise, takes measures to prevent access to a book or to part of its contents.

It can be enacted at the national or subnational level, books may also be challenged at a local community level, although successful bans do not extend outside that area. Similarly, religions may issue lists of banned books—a historical example being the Roman Catholic Churchs Index Librorum Prohibitorum—which do not always carry legal force.

Almost every country places some restrictions on what may be published, although the emphasis, there are a variety of reasons for which books may be banned. Materials are often suppressed due to the notion of obscenity. This obscenity can apply to materials that are about sexuality, race, drugs, the censorship of literature on the charge of obscenity appears to have begun in the early 19th century.

The rise of the class, who had evangelical backgrounds. Governments have also sought to ban certain books which they perceive to contain material that could threaten, embarrass, other leaders outside of the government have banned books, including religious authorities. But even religious materials have been subject to censorship, for example, various scriptures have been banned. The Bible, and other religious scriptures have all been subjected to censorship and have been banned by various governments.

Banning of a book, ironically often has the effect of making people seek out the book, the action of banning the book creates an interest in the book which has the opposite effect of making the work more popular. Book burning is the practice of destroying, often ceremonially, books or other written material and it is usually carried out in public, and is generally motivated by moral, religious, or political objections to the material, with a desire to censor it.

Burning of books and burying of scholars List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum Freedom of the press Nazi book burnings Haight, banned books informal notes on some books banned for various reasons at various times and in various places.

American Library Association — The American Library Association is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.

Whitney, Melvil Dewey, Fred B. Perkins, Charles Evans, and Thomas W. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from England, the aim of the Association, in that resolution, was to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense.

The Association has worked throughout its history to define, extend, protect, during this period, the first Library Bill of Rights was drafted by Forrest Spaulding to set a standard against censorship and was adopted by the ALA in This has been recognized as the moment defining modern librarianship as a committed to intellectual freedom.