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Neither Tarachodidae nor any of its two subgroups were recovered being mono-phyletic therein. And again, its different genera were nested in four distinct biogeographical clades. No such structure can be found in the taxa displaying many plesiomor-phic lraktikum, therefore it is likely that a straight dorsal edge represents the plesiomorphic characters and an angled, rounded or pointed shape is apomorphic.

Wieland 2013, The Phylogenetic System of Mantodea

This resembles the situation found in Liturgusidae see also discussion of Liturgusidae in prakrikum chapter. Another possibility is that the taxon sampling was smaller in the present analyses than in recent molecular studies.

Diskoidaldornen sind beim ersten Nymphen-stadium von Metallyticus noch nachweisbar, und ein einzelner Diskoidaldorn persistiert bei den Adulti.

Authors of the taxa studied can be found in Tab. The name Blattaria is used for the cockroaches excluding the termites. So far, only the monophyly of Empusidae, Toxo-deridae, Sibyllidae, Amorphoscelinae, Paraoxypilinae, Acanthopidae Stenophylla not studiedincluding its subgroups Acontistinae and Acanthopinae, Oxyothespi-nae, and Phyllotheliinae, has been corroborated. Hoplocoryphinae and Haaniinae were not included. This probably helps to increase the mimetic effect exhibited by the entire body dead-leaf-appearance.

Another important fossil species is Santanmantis axelrodi. Left compound eye, oblique posterior view; note the non-visual elon-gation of the eye and its lack of ommatidia. It came out as the sistergroup of a clade containing the greater part of the Acromantinae and all Oxypilinae studied node Molecular studies have instead found evidence for a monophyletic neotropical earless taxon in the basal part of the phylogenetic tree.

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Characters that showed intersexual differences were encoded separately for each sex. Cervix, ventral cervical sclerites, number: It may be nearly straight or slightly angled or rounded. In his study of the cervical sclerites Wieland included Paraoxypilinae and Perlamantinae.

Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography

Vatinaenear the group including Hoplocorypha. If differences in spine numbers were found between the left and the right leg of one and the same individual or between individuals of the same sex, the largest number of spines was encoded.

Toxodera beieri, nymph courtesy of Sren Materna; Malaysia; same specimen as in Roy a: This was probably at least partly due to the choice of characters that are often also used in taxonomy, which in turn was always meant to reflect phylogeny, at least to a certain degree.

Right fore tibia, ventral view. Few recent studies showed conflicting re-sults, mainly because they defined termites as outgroup thus forcing it into a sistergroup relationship with cock-roaches e. Simi-larly, Choeradodinae and Orthoderinae were each only represented by one genus.

The head processes have been conjectured to represent convergent developments of the diffe-rent taxa displaying them Roy Female morphological digging adaptations for laying the ootheca into the soil were compared.

Beobachtungen zur Evolution der Kopffortstze, der mnnlichen Antennomeren, der pronotalen Loben, der Fangbein-morphologie von Chaeteessa und Metallyticus, der Tarsusmorphologie von Heteronutarsus, der Postembryonalentwick-lung, des Sexualdimorphismus, der kkentbal Grabdornen, Trends in der Beinmorphologie, der Geruschproduktion sowie des metathorakalen Gehrorgans wurden zusammengefasst und weitergehend im Detail diskutiert.

However, this character was also described for Caliridinae Giglio-Tos Liturgusidae are bark dwelling mantodeans e. Five groups of spines are distin-guished.

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In the Bayesian analyses, Gyromantis nested within the Austra-lian Iridopterygidae, hence making Iridopterygidae para-phyletic with respect to Paraoxypilinae. A scutellum is lacking in Blattodea Fig.

This is an indication of Metal-lyticus being positioned more apically in the phylogenetic tree than previously estimated. As for Tropidomantinae, most Indomalayan species clustered in a larger clade node 92 that was the sistergroup of the Australasian clade containing Hapalomantinae and Nano-mantinae node They are present, for example, in some Vatinae [Zoolea Fig.

As in molecular studies, the Australasian and the South-East Asian species of the tree-dwelling Liturgusidae were found to be unrelated. Such coherence is ambiguous because there are many ptaktikum Mantodea with quite 11short prothoraces that are very well capable of moving their heads freely.

Furthermore, there are small but distinct articulated spines on the mid- and hind femora of Chaeteessa see characters 83, 84; Figs.

Wieland , The Phylogenetic System of Mantodea

In Mantodea, the prothorax is elongated in most extant species with exception of Mantoida, Chaeteessa, Metallyticus, Amorphoscelinae, and Perlamantinae, in which the kksnthal is almost square. This fossil species had a distinct tibial spur while any spines on the forelegs were missing and only thin bristles were present Grimaldi Processes arising from the lateral ocelli generally consist of two spines or lobes.

As the female has both sclerites although the anterior one is split into four parts and is only weakly sclerotized; see Wieland Therefore, this discussion so far lacks convincing data. This tiny species about 10 mm, see Grimaldi