Learn more about Bridelia uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Bridelia. Asas, Assas, Bridelia cathartica, Bridelia ferruginea , Bridelia grandis, Bridelia micrantha, Bridelia. In present study we explore dose dependent effects of Bridelia ferruginea on hematological parameters. The hematological responses of albino. A review of Bridelia ferruginea, Combretum glutinosum and Mitragina inermis plants used in zootherapeutic remedies in West Africa: historical.
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Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils.
Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical renal and hepatichematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using gridelia methods.
West African Plants – A Photo Guide – Bridelia ferruginea Benth.
There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group.
The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution. Medicinal plants play an important role in health care in Africa.
The use of these medicinal plants, however, is not devoid of danger to health and exposes users to the risk of toxicity as well as unwanted side effects Sonhi, ; Hilaly et al.
Bridelia ferruginea Benth Euphorbiaceae is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa Njamen et al. The aqueous extract of the stem-bark of this plant contains quinones, gallic and catechic tannins, alkaloids, sterols, polyterpenes, polyphenols, reducing compounds, flavonoids and saponosides Nene-Bi et al. The recent study of Edeoga et al. A high percentage of people in both developed and developing countries use medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes Awodele et al.
One of the major reasons that may be responsible for the increased use of medicinal plants is the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective Farnsworth and Soejarto, ; Soejarto, However, consumption of herbal products or traditional medicines by various ethnic groups involves challenges and drawbacks, including several adverse effects, sometimes life-threatening, thus putting into question the safety of herbal remedies Soejarto, ; Elvin-Lewis, Instances of adulteration, inappropriate formulations or lack of understanding of drugs and plant interactions or their uses leading to adverse reactions, sometimes life-threatening or lethal to patients, have been reported Ernst, Thus, contrary to the popular belief that herbal medicines are safe, the use of herbal remedies can pose serious health risks Wood, Although a substantial number of scientific research papers have revealed the therapeutic activities of many African plants, there is paucity of data on the toxicity of these plant materials Abalaka et al.
In light of the report by Wooddetermination of both the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants are germane to their quality assurance. Hence, the guideline for toxicological evaluation of medicinal plants, as stipulated by the WHO, entails holistic toxicological assays so as to be able to make a reasonable conclusion on toxicity profiles. Bridelia ferruginea Euphorbiaceae is a shrub or straggly tree of about 15m high with crooked bole and an up to 1.
It is commonly found in the savannah and its common names in Nigeria include: Ethnobotanical literature and folklore uses describe ulcer-protective and anti-diarrheal effects of the aqueous stem bark Akuodor et al.
Despite all these therapeutic uses of Bridelia ferruginea, extensive toxicological evaluation as stipulated by the WHO has not been carried out. However, Bakoma et al. In view of this, the study was aimed at extensively evaluating the toxicity profile of Bridelia ferruginea using animal models. Fresh stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea was air dried for about 9 days and the dried materials were ground to fine powder using a specialized grinding machine at the Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, and soaked in boiled distilled water overnight g in 2 L.
Male Wistar albino mice average weight 20 g and male albino rats average weight g used in this study were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Center of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
National Institutes of Health for studies involving experimental animals. The use of mice in acute toxicity study and rats in chronic toxicity study is a standard toxicological procedure. The purpose of the acute toxicity was to investigate the acute lethality of the agent and mice are often used because of their nature and strength compared to rats Awodele et al. Two different routes of administration oral and intraperitoneal were used for the acute toxicity study as it is conventional and purposeful to evaluate the effect of different routes on safety and development of toxicity following drug administration.
The mice were randomly divided into five groups of five animals per group. The control group was administered 0. The mice were observed for 24 h post-treatment for mortality, behavioral changes restlessness, dullness, agitation and signs of toxicity. The mice were observed for 24 h post-treatment for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. The rats were randomly allotted to four groups of 10 animals each. The rats were weighed weekly throughout the duration of the experiment.
The animals were closely observed for behavioral changes such as restlessness, hyperactivity and dullness, as well as for general morphological changes.
Blood samples were collected at the end of the study for determination of serum oxidative stress parameters, liver enzymes biomarkers, urea, creatinine and hematological parameters.
The epididymis was processed for sperm analysis assays. Histopathological investigations of the kidney, liver, brain and heart were also carried out. The animals were sacrificed on the 61 st day of the experiment.
Each animal was placed in a closed receptacle containing cotton wool soaked with diethylether and placed in cages in a quiet area to minimize excitement and trauma until euthanasia was complete. To confirm death, each animal was monitored for the following signs: Blood samples were collected via ocular puncture with the aid of a capillary tube into EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid bottles and heparinized bottles for respective hematological and blood chemistry analysis.
The Effect Of Bridelia ferruginea Bark Extract On Some Pathogenic Micro-Organisms
The kidney left and rightliver, brain and heart were carefully isolated, weighed for histopathological examination and the epididymis was immediately removed for sperm quality analysis. The reaction mixture 3 mL contained 2. Serum superoxide dismutase activity was determined by its ability to inhibit the auto-oxidation of epinephrine determined by the increase in absorbance at nm as described by Sun and Zigman, Enzyme activity was calculated by measuring the change in absorbance at nm for 5 min.
Serum catalase activity was determined according to the method ferriginea Beers and Sizer as ferruginew by Usoh et al. The reaction mixture 3 mL contained 0. An extinction coefficient at nm hydrogen peroxide of The specific activity of catalase was expressed as moles of hydrogen peroxide reduced per minute per mg protein. The absorbance was read at nm. Concentration was measured according to the method described by Benderitter et al.
Malondialdehyde, an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined by adding 1. Flocculent materials were removed by centrifugation at 3 rpm for 10 min. Absorbance was read at nm against a hridelia. Malondialdehyde was calculated using the molar extinction coefficient for malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid complex of 1. The protein content was measured by biuret method as described by Gornall et al. Sperm analysis to assess seminal fluid ffrruginea motility, count and morphology was carried out according to the method of Morakinyo et fetruginea.
Briefly, laparotomy was done to expose the reproductive tract. The caudal epididymis was carefully isolated and minced with scissors to release the sperm. Each chamber of the hemocytometer was loaded with 10 microliters of the diluted sperm 1: A 1 in 20 dilution of semen was carried out using sodium bicarbonate-formalin diluting fluid.
An improved Neubauer ruled chamber was filled with the well-mixed diluted semen using a Pasteur pipette. Estimation of the number of spermatozoa in 1 mL of fluid was done by multiplying the number counted by Sperm morphology was determined using eosin and nigrosin stain.
Ten microliters of eosin and ferruginea were mixed with about 40 microliters of sperm suspension. Morphological abnormalities were classified as headless sperm, bridekia head, bent neck and bent tail. Estimation of the percentage of normal and abnormal morphology was done from the counting of hundred spermatozoa. About sperm cells were examined and classified as either bridslia or immotile. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance ANOVA test and the differences between samples were determined by Dunnett’s multiple comparison tests, using the graph pad prism statistical software GraphPad Software Inc.
Acute oral toxicity study in mice after 24 hrs of administration of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea. The aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea did not produce any mortality when administered intraperitoneally i. Effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on the body weights of rats.
Effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on weight of organs of rats per g body weight. Effects of aqueous stem bark extract bridellia Bridelia ferruginea on the hematological parameters in rats. The data in Table ferrkginea show the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on oxidative stress parameters.
Effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on oxidative stress parameters in rats. Table 7 shows the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on liver enzymes and renal functions. The effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on biochemical parameters in rats. Table 8 shows the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on sperm quality of rats. Effects of ferrugibea stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on sperm quality of derruginea.
The micrographs of the brain sections obtained from untreated rats and rats treated with various doses of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea. The micrographs of the kidney sections obtained from ferryginea rats and rats treated with various doses of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea. The micrographs of the heart sections obtained from untreated rats and rats treated with various doses of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea.
The micrographs of the liver sections obtained from untreated rats and rats treated with various doses of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea.
Acute toxicity LD 50 testing has been widely used, though often criticized as a parameter for assessing toxicity Lorke, ; Klaassen, ; Timbrel, This assay may provide information on gridelia range of doses that could be used in subsequent toxicity testing; it reveals possible clinical signs elicited by the test substance or extract and is a useful parameter for estimating the Therapeutic Index T.
I of drugs Rang et al.
The acute lethal effect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea on rats produced no death within 24 hours of treatment either via oral or intraperitoneal routes. The results further revealed that the extract caused an increase in the body weight of rats in the test groups, compared to the rats in the control group.
The implication of this finding could be that the extract contained some nutrients vitamins that have the potential to increase body weight. Further studies may be done on this activity so as to explore all the weight increasing potentials of this extract and also determine the influence of doses on weight increase. Increased or decreased organ weight was observed as a sensitive indicator of organ toxicity by known toxicants Dioka et al.
The aqueous stem-bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to cause a non-significant increase in the weight of harvested organs of rats liver, heart and kidneys. Since this is a non-significant increase in organ weights, by extrapolation and implication, the results may be an indication of the low toxicity and relative safety of the extract.