Symphony No.1 (Mahler, Gustav) . Complete Score (minus “Blumine” movement) Notes, Mahler later deleted the “Blumine” movement from the symphony. By the time the Titan became the true symphony we know today, the Blumine music had been removed by Mahler. The rediscovery of the score in the middle of . Gustav Mahler. Blumine (“Flora”), for orchestra (discarded movement from Symphony No. 1). Composition Information ↓; Description ↓; Appears On ↓.

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Later he found his music too sentimental and was so dissatisfied with it that he asked an acquaintance to destroy the piano reduction. As the only surviving score perished when the Kassel Theater was bombed inthe music was long thought to be lost.

But in the Mahler biographer Donald Mitchell b. In earlyMahler became the director of the Royal Opera in Budapest.

Gustav Mahler () – Blumine

He left Budapest in to become principal conductor at the Hamburg Municipal Theater. In Januarywith the prospect of a second performance, he revised the work, at first removing the andante movement only to reinstate it and attach a program to the entire symphony. It was in the course of this revision that the slow movement received the title Blumine. In this form, the entire symphony, now entitled with a nod to Jean Paul Titan: It was performed in the same form the following year in Weimar, on 3 June.

Mahler now called the work Symphony in D major for large orchestra. It was published in this four-movement form in Thereafter Blumine was long thought to be lost, as the early manuscripts had disappeared.

Mahler Symphony 1 – Blumine Movement

When Mitchell examined the autograph score at Yale inhis eyes lit on a theme that had been handed down in the Mahler literature in the memoirs of the music critic Max Steinitzer Given the absence of the original score, there is no way to verify this claim.

Nevertheless, it is quite certain that the serenade was transformed into Blumine with few if any changes. This also becomes clear when we compare the much smaller scoring of the movement with the forces demanded for the symphony. The rediscovered piece was given its first twentieth-century hearing by Benjamin Britten at the Aldeburgh Festival on 18 June The question remains why Mahler expunged the movement from his symphony in the first place.


One practical reason might have been the length of the five-movement work. All we can conclude is that Mahler had mixed feelings about Blumine.

Inhe was satisfied with the trumpet serenade; inhe found it too sentimental and wanted it destroyed; inhe interpolated it into a symphony; and inhe removed it yet again!

Symphony No.1 (Mahler, Gustav)

It was he who wrote the novel Titan that briefly mahlerr its name to the First Symphony — a name bpumine which it is again known today. The first theme is preceded by a four-bar introduction of tremolando strings, establishing backdrop against which the trumpet states the first theme.

This theme is irregularly constructed from a four-bar antecedent and a five-bar consequent and ends with a half cadence. For two bars, the harp mahleg woodwind modulate back to C major, preparing the trumpet for its second entrance.

It begins with the same head motif as in the first theme — a motif of central importance to the entire movement — but elaborates it in a different way. C major is reached in bar 20 via a secondary dominant in the form of a suspended second-inversion triad.

Blumine Movement

The tension is resolved in the basses, chromatically veiled above a pedal point on G and prolonged to bar It then resolves via the dominant to C major.

A twelve-bar transition leads to the B section, which opens in the relative minor A minor and proceeds to modulate to remote tonal areas. At this point the movement reaches the distant key of G-flat major, a tritone removed from the tonic.

Once again, a chromatically veiled second-inversion triad on G serves as a transition. The recapitulation of the A section is abridged. It again opens with the trumpet melody, but the melody is not repeated as in the first section. It is restated a few times only to break off suddenly.

The music vanishes in the high strings and ebbs away with three chords from the harp. Blumine is the title of the rejected Andante second movement of Mahler’s First Symphony.

It was first named Blumine in However it was not discarded until after the first three performances, where it remained the second movement. After the performance where it was called Bluminenkapitelthe piece received harsh criticism, especially regarding the second movement. In the Berlin premiere inBlumine was cut out, along with the title Titan and the programme of the symphony. Shortly after this, the symphony was published without the Blumine movement and in the previous versions of the symphony it was gone.


The trumpet serenade was used for Blumine with little changes. It was originally scored for a small orchestra and this is how it appears in Blumine, which is in contrast to the large orchestra used in the rest of the symphony.

The movement is a short lyrical piece with a gentle trumpet solo, similar to the posthorn solos in the Third Symphony. Even though it was cut from the symphony, there are still traces of its influence in the rest of the movements. Blumine translates to “floral”, or “flower”, and some believe this movement was written for Johanna Richter, with whom Mahler was infatuated at the time.

The style of this movement has much in common with Mahler’s earlier works but also shows the techniques and distinct style of his later compositions.

Blumine was rediscovered by Donald Mitchell inwhile doing research for his biography on Mahler in the Osborn Collection at Yale University, in a copy of the Hamburg version of the symphony. Apparently, Mahler had given it to a woman he tutored at the Vienna Conservatory.

It was passed on to her son, who then sold it to James Osborn, who then donated it to Yale University. Benjamin Britten gave the first rediscovered performance of the Hamburg version inafter it had been lost for over seventy years. After this discovery, other people performed this movement, some even simply inserting the Blumine into the version.

However, many people did not agree about playing this music as part of the symphony. Mahler had rejected it from his symphony, they reasoned, so it should not be played as part of it. Others perform Blumine before or after the symphony, while still others performed it on its own or alongside Mahler’s other works.

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